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seras donc ma dernière demeure !” The executioner, moved with compassion, protested against the unusual height of the pile beneath the stake—a veritable mountain of wood and sulphur, calculated to prolong the sufferings of the victim. Above her head was placed an inscription, “Heretic, relapse, apostate, idolater !” The pile was lit, and Jeanne uttered a cry of terror. Then, recovering her fortitude, and seeing that the priest who exhorted her was not heeding the flame, she bade him descend. She prayed that the city of Rouen might not suffer on account of her death, and asked for a cross. A soldier held
up one rudely constructed on the spot with two sticks, and, gazing over the flames at the sacred symbol, Jeanne d'Arc was soon heard uttering her last prayer. Remorse speedily visited the participants in this tragedy. “Many, both French and English,” says the historian Crowe, “felt horror-stricken at having contributed to the fearful death of one so simple, so pure, and so devoutly religious, who had been animated by a patriotism so disinterested, and whose mission or whose aim was but to rid France of its factions and its invaders.”
After the expulsion of the English from Rouen an inquiry was instituted for the purpose of revising the sentence. A papal bull was published declaring her innocent, and Rouen, and
indeed all France, now honours HÔTEL BOURGTHÉROUDE.
the memory of Jeanne d'Arc
as that of a saint and martyr. In the Rue Morand stands an ancient donjon-tower (now restored), the last of seven that once appertained to the château built by Philip Augustus. This château was long a residence of the Dauphins of France, as Dukes of Normandy. It was demolished by Henry IV. after the siege of Rouen, but the great donjon-tower was left, as it formed part of the city fortifications. The tower is now known as the Tour Jeanne d'Arc, as it was the scene of the private interrogations of the unfortunate maid, and of her being threatened with the instruments of torture which were displayed to her view.
In the Place de la Pucelle there is a large stone mansion, partly dating from the same era as the Palais de Justice, and partly of later origin. It is very rich in sculptures, and
THE HÔTEL BOURGTHÉROUDE.
is an exceedingly interesting specimen of Norman domestic architecture. The house was begun towards the end of the fifteenth century by William Leroux, Lord of Bourgthéroude, and completed by his son in 1537. Slender buttresses or pilasters divide the entire front into compartments, between which are bas-reliefs by different masters. Every available
space is covered with ornament. The labours of the field and vineyard, fishing, banqueting, and so forth, are carefully depicted, and the salamander, the device of Francis I., is very conspicuous amongst the ornaments. On the north side of the interior court, and contiguous to the octagonal tower, there is a spacious gallery with foliaged pilasters bounding the arched windows; beneath are the celebrated bas-reliefs on marble tablets representing the interview of Henry VIII. and Francis I. at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and in the processions of the two kings, Wolsey and other well-known characters are readily distinguishable. It is probable that the younger Leroux parted with the mansion before the decorations were completed, and that Francis I. (or perhaps the seductive Diana de Poitiers) became the owner.
At any rate, it is certain that Francis I. was dwelling here in 1510. In 1550 it was inhabited by his son Henry II. during a visit to Rouen, and a very curious book printed in that city in 1551 gives an elaborate account of the “ somptueux orire, plaisants & pectacles, et magnifiques théatres dressés et exhibés par les citoyens de Rouen à sa sacrée Majesté et à très-illustre dame Katharine ile Jelicis la Royne son épouse.” It was no doubt a sufficiently “plaisant spectacle” when the long procession of archers in white maroquin and yellow satin, the four mendicant orders of Cordeliers, Jacobins, Carmelites, and Augustines, divers city officials in robes of office, trade guilds, soldiers, and triumpha! cars with ladies personating Religion, &c., came winding on through the quaint old streets. But this was not all; there were six elephants, almost life-like in their movements; and then, too, there was the most honourable part of the procession—the presidents, councillors, advocates, and functionaries of the great Court of Parliament, splendidly robed in scarlet stuff and velvet and ermine, with various decorations signifying their different ranks.
We find in 1590 the Cardinal of Florence, a scion of the Medicis family, who was staying in France as the Papal Legate, occupying the Hôtel Bourgthéroude. There is reason to think that the mansion continued to be State or Crown property, for the Earl of Shrewsbury, when sent by Queen Elizabeth to bestow the Order of the Garter on Henry of Navarre, dwelt here in October, 1596 ; and at a later period, when Louis XIV. during his minority visited Rouen, this mansion was assigned to the renowned Mademoiselle, the illustrious and energetic lady who, disappointed in her hopes of becoming Queen of France, was obliged to rest content with being Duchess of Montpensier, and wedding M. de Lauzun.
The Rue de la Grosse Horloge was, prior to recent modern renovations, one of the most picturesque streets in the city. It is spanned by an ancient gateway built in 1511, bearing the great city clock, from which the street derives its name. It adjoins the Tour du Beffroi or Tour de la Grosse Horloge, and both were originally annexes of an ancient Hôtel de Ville. The belfry-tower was built in 1389, and was known in the fifteenth century as the Tour du Massacre. It is a massive square Gothic tower, with large ogival windows, and terminated in a platform surrounded by iron balustrades, to reach which a winding staircase of 200 steps must be ascended. Within the tower hangs the so-called Cloche d’Argent, which rings the curfew every evening, and also peals forth whenever there is a fire in the city or on the occasion of national fêtes. It is said that when the Republican Government seized all the bells they could lay hands on to melt them down into cannon in 1793, the good citizens of Rouen missed their bell so much that they set to work to replace it with the least possible delay. Accordingly they brought whatever metals they had, and amongst the rest there was so much silver plate brought by rich inhabitants, that the bell accordingly received the name by which it is generally known. But the more probable derivation of the name is from the silvery tones of the bell, which are very noticeable.
At the base of the tower, and reaching to the first storey, stands the Fontaine de
la Grosse Horloge, re-constructed in 1732. Above the flowing water is a fine piece of sculpture, representing, it is usually stated, Alpheus and Arethusa, although a local writer insists that it represents Ocean and the River Seine.
Whilst noticing this fountain it may be stated that there are no less than thirtysix ornamental fountains in Rouen. The considerably dilapidated Fontaine Lisieux is said to represent Mount Parnassus; the Fontaine de la Crosse is a graceful monument of the fifteenth century, crowned by a beautiful statue of the Virgin ; and there is the Fontaine de la Croix de St. Pierre, near the Church of St. Vivien. There was a fountain at this spot for centuries, but it has been two or three times re-constructed, once by Georges d’Amboise, the famous bishop—who seemed never happy unless he was building something—and last of all in 1870. At the Revolution the cross at the summit was replaced by a bust of Marat. “L’Ami du Peuple" did not enjoy a long popularity; in 1798 his bust was plucked down and thrown into the Seine; and it was not till 1802 that a cross was again placed on the fountain.
The only specimen of the ancient city gates still remaining is the Porte Guillaume Lion, on the Quai de Paris. The gate was erected in 1454, a little in advance of a tower built by a certain Guillaume Lion two centuries before, and has been twice rebuilt, namely, in 1510 and 1749. The Revolutionary authorities made a vain attempt to re-name it the Porte Guillaume Tell. The structure, which would be more effective if it were not dwarfed by the large modern buildings on the quay, is decorated with sculptures by Claude Leprince, a Norman artist.
In front of the Lycée, near the northern end of the Rue de la République, is the Place de la Rougemare, one of the historic sites of Rouen, although not marked by any special monument. It is now the butter-market, but 900 years ago there was at this spot a large pool or lake. In 945 the Emperor Otho attacked Rouen; but Richard I., son of Rollo, defeated the German troops with such terrible slaughter that the great lake referred to was red with their blood. It was henceforth known as the Rougemare, and the Place that now occupies its site retains the name as a memorial of that sanguinary struggle.
Of local celebrities of whom Rouen gratefully preserves the remembrance, a foremost place must be given to the brothers Corneille. In the Rue de la Pie an inscription records the position of the now demolished house where Pierre and Thomas Corneille were born. 'The latter would have won for himself a lasting fame by his undoubted talent, but he is overshadowed by his brother, the immortal author of "The Cid” and “Polyeucte.” In the Rue des Bons Enfans stands the house in which the amiable philosopher Fontenelle was born. He was the nephew of Corneille ; his father, Le Bovier de Fontenelle, having married Marthe Corneille, sister of the great poet. Man of science, philosopher, poet, and general writer, he lived for a hundred years all but a month, and occupied a fauteuil at the Academy for sixty years without exciting the envy or enmity of any of his colleagues. In the Rue aux Ours was born, in 1775, the illustrious French composer Boieldien, and in 1785 the celebrated chemist Dulong, who in the course of his experiments lost one eye and two fingers in the cause of science. Commemorative inscriptions point out the two houses. In the Rue des Juifs is similarly indicated the house where the French painter Jouvenet was born, in April, 1644. A street leading from the Quai de Paris to the Place St. Marc
is named after him. Armand Carrel, founder of Le National, the first journalist of his age, and the “very Bayard of Republican journalism,” was born at Rouen in 1800. He was killed in a duel in July, 1836. At the end of the Suspension Bridge is a house given by the town to the family of Louis Brune, a man who made it his special mission to plunge into the Seine and save drowning persons. Many lives were saved by his exertions. Whilst alluding to these reminiscences of individuals we may mention that when Charles II. and his companion Wilmot fled from England, they had great difficulty, on account of the state of their clothes, in gaining admittance to an inn in the fish-market, and narrowly escaped being given in charge to the police as a pair of thieves. It was at Rouen that Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde Clarendon died after his seven years' exile from his native land.
We have already spoken of the Jardin de St. Ouen; there are some other spaces in the city laid out in a similar manner. Where the broad Rue de l'Hôtel de Ville cuts the Rue Jeanne d'Arc is the Jardin de Solferino, with its green turf and beds of flowers, mimic lakes, mimic rocks, hired chairs, and a band of music at certain hours. The Jardin des Plantes, on the other side of the river, is a fine park, an enjoyable place for a ramble by ordinary visitors, and an invaluable aid to the studies of the Schools of Botany and Arboriculture.
The first bridge across the Seine at Rouen was built in 1167 by Queen Matilda, the daughter of Henry I. It was destroyed in the middle of the fifteenth century, and a bridge of boats for a long period was the only means of communication between the two shores. The present stone bridge was built in 1829, the first stone being laid by King Louis Philippe. The bridge of boats was replaced by a suspension bridge 650 feet in length in 1836.
The stone bridge crosses near the extremity of the Ile de la Croix, and the view from that point has been already described. Here stands, upon a pedestal of Carrara marble, supported by a mass of granite, a bronze statue of Pierre Corneille, the model for which was the work of the sculptor David d'Angers. The cost of the statue was defrayed by public subscription, and its solemn inauguration took place on October 19th, 1834. Opposite the statue stretches the little narrow island of la Croix—the “Mabille” of Rouen -containing a pretty garden known as Tivoli Normand, devoted to al-fresco pleasures.
On the opposite side of the river lies the extensive suburb of St. Sever. It contains numerous factories and tall chimneys, wharves, barracks, docks, lunatic asylums, reformatory schools, slaughter-houses, gas-works, and so forth. It is a very busy place, and on the outskirts are great numbers of comfortable houses of well-to-do citizens. The modern Church of St. Sever, constructed in 1838, in the Renaissance style, took the place of an earlier erection, dating from 1538, which also was preceded by buildings of far greater antiquity. It is said that in the reign of Richard the Fearless, the grandson of Rollo, two priests set out on a pilgrimage from Rouen to a church situated in a forest near St. Michael, in which the sepulchre of St. Sever, a former Bishop of Avranches, was situated. The monks became possessed with a desire to obtain the saint's body, and plotted together how they might carry out their design. They were overheard, and the priest was informed of their intentions. Being thus frustrated, the monks returned to