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blue masses of infantry, the swift Uhlans with their pennons, and the Cuirassiers with their gleaming mail. There, too, rode the stout old king and his three mighty men, Moltke, Bismarck, and Roon, under whose régime of blood and iron Germany had become united, and rendered capable of subduing the ancestral foe that had rushed into war with a light heart, shouting “A Berlin ! À Berlin ! ”
On the right of the statue just now described stands the Palace of the Emperor William, at the corner of the Opera Platz, not shut off from the street, as is the case
with most royal residences. There is a small garden in front of the side facing the square, and immediately behind the trees, on the ground floor, are the rooms occupied by the Emperor. The reception room is very handsome, and is 225 feet in length. The Emperor has resided in this Palace ever since his marriage, in 1829, when Prince Royal of Prussia. In 1848, when a revolutionary crowd was clamouring for his blood, he fled by night in disguise to Hamburg, and from thence passed to England, under the name of Müller; and when, after a long year of exile, he returned to his Palace, he saw the words “National Property” inscribed on the wall.
Opposite the Palace is the building devoted to the two Academies of Art and Science, founded by Frederick I., with the help of Leibnitz; and close by is the University
VIEWS IN UNTER DEN LINDEN, BERLIN. 1, The Opernplatz ; 2, Looking towards the Statue of Frederick the Great; 3, The Emperor's Gallery ; 4, The Crown Prince's Palace;
5, Some of the Shops ; 6, Looking towards the Brandenburg Gate.
(formerly a palace), with 3,600 students attending its lectures and classes. It was founded in 1810, when Napoleon, by creating his new “Kingdom of Westphalia,” had stolen from Prussia her famous University of Halle. Baron von Humboldt was then at the head of the Educational Department of Prussia, and Fichte and Schleiermacher were leaders of Prussian thought. The list of honoured names connected with this University since its establishment is far too long to quote here, but among them may be mentioned a few of world-wide celebrity, as Neander, Eichhorn, Bopp, Grimm, and Carl Ritter. Nearly a score of names of distinction in various branches of knowledge might be given from amongst the present professors. The University buildings include a library and various museums, cabinets, and laboratories.
The curious-looking building adjoining the Palace is the Royal Library; so curious is the building, that it has given rise to a story that Frederick the Great gave the architect, Unger, a chest of drawers as the model of the edifice. The Library itself, which contains 900,000 volumes and 15,000 MSS., stands at the head of the nine public libraries and fifteen people's libraries of Berlin, and is celebrated for the rare collection of treasures associated with the names of Luther, Melanchthon, Guttenburg, Lucas Cranach, and others.
Opposite the Library stands the Opera House, erected in 1743 by Knobelsdorf. Next to the Court Theatre in Munich, it is the largest in Germany. Upon the Opera Platz, where five life-sized figures by Rauch represent Blucher and other generals who fought against Napoleon I., a military band stationed in front of the Royal Guard House (a modern erection, in the style of the Porta Nigra, at Trèves) discourses sweet music to throngs of loungers on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays. Adjacent to the Opera House is the Palace of the Crown Prince, where, amidst works of art and souvenirs of her native land, dwells the Princess Royal of England. Just opposite is the Arsenal, a square building, measuring two hundred and eighty-eight feet each way, and above the windows round the interior court are twenty-two masks by Schlüter, depicting the human face in the agonies of death. Amongst the curiosities here are two leather guns used in the Thirty Years' War by Gustavus Adolphus, and numerous modern cannon captured at various places : one a monster piece brought from Mont Valérien at Paris; besides banners, fortress keys, fire-arms of every type and kind, and many other warlike inventions and accessories. Great alterations will transform this building into a veritable Temple of Glory.
From the Opera Platz, and the imposing group of buildings that surround it, a noble bridge, the Schloss-Brücke, crosses an insignificant stream, one of the branches of the Spree. The bridge, designed by Schinkel, is one hundred and six feet wide, and is adorned with eight groups in marble, representing scenes in the life of a warrior : first he is taught old heroic stories by Victory, then he is instructed in the use of weapons and presented with arms by Minerva ; Victory crowns the conqueror and raises up the wounded warrior; Minerva incites him to a new conquest, and gives him protection and aid; and, in the last scene, Iris conducts the fallen warrior to Olympus.
Beyond the Schloss-Brücke extends the drilling-ground, called the Lustgarten, formerly a garden belonging to the Palace ; it is planted with trees and is bounded by the Cathedral, the Royal Palace, and the Old Museum ; while in the centre stands Wolff's equestrian statue