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Roral Porcelain Factory was fou del by Frederick the Great; its productions are highly esteemed for lightness of material, elegance of design, and beauty of colouring. The factory was removed in 1571 to its present site beyond the Thiergarten, to make room for the temporary bailding erected for the Imperial German Parliament. The silk-looms, once very
numerous in Berlin, have almost wholly disappeared. For a time the woollen manufacture kept its ground, but the 12,000 workmen employed in this industry in 1861 had sunk to less than 3,000 in 1971. The principal articles of manufacture and commerce are locomotives and machinery, carriages, copper, brass, and bronze wares, porcelain, and all kinds of building requisites. The manufacture of sewing-machines is a very important feature of industry, from 70,000 to 75,000 of these useful appliances being made here annually. In 1874 there were 1,906 factories in Berlin, employing 64,466 persons,
of whom 14,737 were engaged in the manufacture of steam-engines and machinery; and we may here remark that with this great increase of the industrial population Berlin has lost much of its original character, and the numerical relations of class to class have been very much altered. At least seventy per cent. of the entire population are now engaged in trade and manufacture; and the military, the Civil Service, and the learned professions form a much smaller proportion than was once the case. The advent of an Imperial Parliament, and new political institutions in connection with it, have also brought about
important changes, so that in more ways than we can point out here Berlin is in a transitional state, and what is to be the eventual outcome of the present colossal development, not even a Bismarck can foretell.
In the matter of amusements Berlin is pretty well off, there being about five-and-twenty theatres; one, the National, was burnt down in April, 1883. The Royal Opera House and the Royal Theatre have been mentioned already. There are, besides the theatres, several other popular resorts; some of them are a sort of combination of café and conservatory, the numerous dining establishments in many cases spreading their tables amidst gardens and arbours, colonnades and terraces; and in the evenings, therefore, when people flock to these places to take their suppers, and enjoy the music and singing and other attractions, the scene is very picturesque and lively.
The Sing-Akademie, founded in 1791, is an association of some three hundred amateurs, who give public concerts in their tasteful Grecian building near the University.
Leaving now the central portions of the city, to which our attention has up to the present been directed, we will proceed to glance at some of the more prominent features of the suburbs and environs of Berlin, beginning at the Potsdam Gate, in the south-west. Here lies the suburb called the Aeussere Friedrichstadt, one of the finest quarters of Berlin, containing the residences of many of the wealthiest members of the community. Rows of trees adorn the streets, and the handsome detached villas are surrounded by gardens. The Potsdam Railway Station, a fine building, stands in the Potsdamer Platz, and an obelisk is to be erected here to commemorate the escape of the Emperor William from assassination in 1878.
About a mile south of the Potsdam Gate, at the village of Schöneberg, is the Botanical Garden, specially noted for its palms and cacti, and containing 20,000 species of plants—one of the most extensive gardens of the kind in Europe. In the adjacent St. Matthew's Cemetery are many handsome monuments, and also the graves of the Brothers Grimm, the well-known philologists, and collectors of old-world tales and legends.
The Friedrichsstrasse (already mentioned) and two or three other important streets converge at their southern extremity at the Belle Alliance Platz, a circular space laid out as a garden, in the centre of which stands the Friedens Denkmal, or Column of Peace, sixty feet in height, erected a quarter of a century afterwards in memory of the peace of 1815. From a lofty pedestal rises a granite column with a marble capital, above which a “Victory,” by Rauch, seems offering to the city a victor's wreath with her right hand, whilst waving a palm-branch in her left. Around the column are four marble groups, representing the Allies of 1815: England, Prussia, the Netherlands, and Hanover. The adjacent flight of steps, the Halle Gate, and the bridge across the canal are all adorned with marble sculptures. Beyond the bridge are the Tempelhof and Schöneberg quarters, both rapidly spreading and increasing in population. Three-quarters of a mile from the Halle Gate is the Kreuzberg, two hundred and thirteen feet above the sea-level—the only approach to a mountain which many native Berliners have ever seen, for there is no other eminence whatever in the neighbourhood, and it is accordingly a popular place of resort, and a goal of tramcars and omnibuses. From its summit there is a fine panorama of the city. The hill is surmounted by a metal obelisk, sixty-two feet in height, dedicated to his people in 1818 by Frederick William III. as “a monument to the fallen, an acknowledgment to the living, an example to posterity.” Beyond the Halle Gate are several places of popular resort; also the Tempelhofer Feld, where reviews of the garrison have been held since the days of Frederick the Great. The autumn maneuvres, with this place as a centre, extend far over the surrounding country, and last for several days. The neighbouring Hasenheide, with an appropriate statue of Jahn, the German “Turnvater," is the scene of rifle practice and gymnastic exercises. There are several large cemeteries in this locality; in the Jerusalemer Kirchhof lies Chamisso; in the Dreifaltigkeits Kirchhof are the graves of Mendelssohn, Schleiermacher, and Tieck.
We can but mention the Stralan quarter, with its numerous factories, and the Königstadt, both adjoining Old Berlin. Beyond the Königs Thor is a pleasant park, the Friedrichsham, with military monuments, and good views of the town.
The Linsenstadt, south of the Wallstrasse, is a manufacturing district, not yet thirty years old, but now the most populous and least interesting part of Berlin. Passing round to the north, beyond the Rosenthal Gate, is a park named after Humboldt, whose house in the Oranienburgstrasse is a place of pilgrimage to many devotees of science.
Farther west, beyond the old Oranienburg Gate, which exists but in name only, lies the “Quartier Latin,” containing in the neighbourhood of the Louisen Strasse several institutions connected with the medical departments of the University. At the end of the street just named is the Neue Thor, beyond which lies the pretty Invaliden Park, adorned with military monuments : in fact, go where you will in Berlin, these military monuments meet the eye. The suburb of Moabit, till lately a distinct place, separated from the city by intervening country, and noted for its places of recreation, largely patronised by the lower classes of Berlin, is now an integral portion of the spreading town. It received its name from French agricultural immigrants, who, in disgust at the sandy, sterile soil, called it “Pays de Moab.”
But it is outside the Brandenburg Gate, to the west of the city, that the most interesting environs are found. On passing through the gate (not by the centre arch, which is reserved for royalty), the Friedens Allee, to the right, leads to the Königs Platz, with its ornamental grounds and fountains, one of the finest sites in Berlin. In the centre rises to a height of two hundred feet Strack's monument of “ Victory," erected in 1873, after the return of the army from Paris. Bronze reliefs on the massive square pedestal commemorate the Danish war of 1864, the Battle of Königgrätz, 1866; the Battle of Sedan, 1870; and the return of the troops, 1871. A colonnade, illustrating in its Venetian mosaics the war of 1870 and the restoration of German unity, surrounds the base of the column, and the names of the generals are all duly set forth. Sixty Danish, Austrian, and French cannon are placed in the flutings of the sandstone column, of which eagles form the capital, and above towers a “Borussia," by Drake, forty-eight feet in height. From the capital, one hundred and fifty-two feet above the ground, and accessible for fifty feet, there is of course a fine view.
The Raczynski Picture Gallery, containing many choice works; the numerous modern mansions; Kroll's noted establishment, and other places of amusement, we can only mention. South from the Königs Platz runs the broad Sieges Allee, through the Thiergarten, one of the most fashionable promenades in Berlin.
Favourite drives surround the Thiergarten, which is a splendid park of about six hundred acres, in parts displaying the attractions of cultivation, in others the beauties of a natural forest, while several fine lakes enliven the scenery, and Frederick William III., Queen Louise, and Goethe are commemorated by monuments; the last two were raised in 1880. Beyond a canal to the south is the Zoological Garden, a truly charming spot, where the animals are located in houses and sheds built from appropriate and artistic designs; thus, the antelopes are placed in a building in the Arabian style, the elephants in a gaily-coloured pagoda-like edifice. German royal residences have not been considered complete without collections of animals. Potsdam, accordingly, had its menagerie, from which the beasts and birds were brought here, but the collection has since been largely augmented, till it has become one of the finest in the world. There are pleasant lawns and plenty of fine trees interspersed with the cages and tanks and enclosures ; innumerable tables and chairs line the principal avenue, and also cover a sloping lawr terrace; and, in the evening especially, when throngs of citizens and their wives and